(a) GENERAL SKILLS AND PRINCIPLES
Candidates will be expected to be familiar with the following skills and principles:
(i) Measurement of mass and volume;
(ii) Preparation and dilution of standard solutions;
(iii) Filtration, recrystallisation and melting point determination;
(iv) Measurement of heats of neutralization and solutions;
(v) Determination of pH value of various solutions by colorimetry;
(vi) Determination of rates of reaction from concentration versus time curves;
(vii) Determination of equilibrium constants for simple system.
(b) QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
The use of standard solutions of acids and alkalis and the indicators; methyl orange,
methyl red and phenolphthalein to determine the following:
(i) The concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions;
(ii) The molar masses of acids and bases and water of crystallization.
(iii) The solubility of acids and bases;
(iv) The percentage purity of acids and bases;
(v) Analysis of Na2CO3/NaHCO3 mixture by double
indicator methods (Ghanaians only).
(vi) Stoichiometry of reactions.
Titrations of the following systems to solve analytical problems:
(i) Acidic MnO4
– with Fe2+;
(ii) Acidic MnO4
– with C2O4
(iii) I2 in KI versus S2O3
(d) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
No formal scheme of analysis is required.
(i) Characteristic tests of the following cations with dilute NaOH(aq) and NH3(aq);
NH4; Ca2+; Pb2+; Cu2+; Fe2+; Fe3+; Al3+; and Zn2+
(ii) Confirmatory tests for the above cations.
(iii) Characteristic reaction of dilute HCl on solids or aqueous solutions and conc.
H2SO4 on solid samples of the following:
(iv) Confirmatory tests for the above anions
(v) Comparative study of the halogens; displacement reactions.
(vi) Characteristic tests for the following gases: H2; NH3; CO2; HCl and SO2.
(vii) Characteristic test tube reactions of the functional groups in the following simple
organic compounds: Alkenes; alkanols; alkanoic acids, sugars (using Fehiling’s
and Benedict’s solutions only); starch (iodine test only) and proteins (using the
Ninhydrin test, Xanthoporteic test, Biuret test and Millon’s test only).